The animals showed a clear preference for cooked foods over raw, and were capable of waiting for the cooking process to occur
The chimpanzees in this study showed an understanding of the causal relationship necessary for cooking.
In a collaborative research project from Harvard and Yale, cognitive scientists have found that chimpanzees possess the ability to cook, so long as they have the proper tools.
For two years, doctors Felix Warneken and Alexandra G. Rosati, a married couple, spent time at the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center in the Republic of Congo to run a series of experiments testing the animals’ cognitive abilities.
When testing revealed that the chimps would indeed cook if given the chance, the duo created a “magic cooking device,” described by Dr. Werneken to The New York Times as “two plastic bowls that fit closely together with pre-cooked food hidden in the bottom tub.”
The chimpanzees learned to place a piece of raw sweet potato into the “machine,” then wait for one of the researchers to “shake and bake” and remove the top bowl, revealing a piece of cooked sweet potato.
The scientists were also able to observe the chimpanzees waiting for cooked food from the device instead of eating the readily available raw food, bringing food from the opposite side of the cage to be cooked, and even putting in other kinds of food.
The experiments showed that chimps had both the patience required for cooking as well as the “minimal causal understanding they would need” to grasp the concept of cooking.
10 Surprising Benefits of Eating More Ginger + 2 Healing Recipes
Ginger may be the queen of spices when it comes to health benefits! The use of ginger for medicinal purposes reaches back well over 4,000 years. Ginger is a plant that is cultivated in warm climates throughout Southeastern Asia, Africa, Australia, around the Mediterranean and more recently in Mexico and South America.
Ginger (Zingiber officianale) belongs to the same plant family as turmeric and cardamom. The rhizome or bulbous root is the part of the plant that contains its most important component, Gingerol. Due to its lengthy history as a medicine, ginger may be one of the most studied spices or herbs.
For years in our medicine cabinet, my wife and I have kept ginger for relief of indigestion and upset stomach. But as you’ll see, ginger also possesses powerful properties for numerous other health conditions. In fact, James A. Duke, PhD, the world’s foremost authority on healing herbs, lists more than 40 health benefits of ginger in his book, The Green Pharmacy.
In general, ginger with its gingerols boasts strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic properties. ,  Thus, ginger offers immune- and energy-building benefits. Additionally, ginger is a good source of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, copper, and manganese. I can’t think of another herb or spice with such a wide array of effective therapeutic applications! And unlike many other herbs and spices, you can enjoy ginger in a wide variety of forms.
Malaysian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Malaysia did not exist until 1963, the cuisine can claim traceable roots as far back as the 1400s during the time of Malaccan Sultanate. Malaysian cuisine is a mixture of cooking cultures from around Malay archipelago, India, China, the Middle East, and several European countries.  This diverse culinary culture stems from Malaysia's diverse culture and colonial past.  The cuisine was developed as a melange between local and foreign. In the 15th century, the region now known as Malaysia became an important passageway for maritime trade. Passing through Malaysia were Arab traders who brought spices from the Middle East, as well as Portuguese, Dutch, and English colonizers and traders who introduced food staples such as peanuts, pineapples, avocado, tomato, squash and pumpkin.  Later, under British rule, the colonizers brought many Chinese and Indian laborers  who contributed to the diversity of tastes in Malaysian cuisine. 
Being a multicultural country, Malaysians have over the years adopted each other's dishes to suit the taste buds of their own culture. For instance, Malaysians of Chinese descent have adapted the Indian curry, and made it more dilute and less spicy to suit their taste. Chinese noodles have been crossed with Indian and Malay tastes and thus Malay fried noodles and Indian fried noodles were born. Malaysians have also adapted famous dishes from neighbouring countries, or those with strong cultural and religious ties, and in the absence of an established community from said countries have made it completely their own, a notable example being tom yam, one of Thailand's most well-known dishes.
After migrating south of the border, Thai tom yam takes on the visual characteristics of a Malaysian Assam gravy with a flavour profile of sweet, sour and spicy. It is thickened with pounded chile paste which also turns it a vivid orange-red. Tamarind is often used instead of lime juice as its souring agent, and dried instead of fresh chillies are used to provide a fiery kick. Malay-style tom yam soup tends to be heavily seafood-based, whereas in Chinese-style eateries the broth's spiciness is toned down and usually serves as a base for noodle soup.
Across the sea from Peninsular Malaysia on Borneo island, lie the states of Sabah and Sarawak. Traditional lifestyles and limited roads still predominate outside of the major cities, especially in Sarawak, where rivers are the only major highways for much of the inland population. The jungles of Borneo are teeming with wild plants, fungi, and fruits, and its sweeping coastlines and many large rivers provide an abundance of seafood and freshwater fish fit for the dinner table. A rich variety of traditional food has been developed by Borneo's many tribes and indigenous groups over the centuries much of it is healthy food, consisting of foraged (now increasingly cultivated due to modernisation) and fermented foods. Because much of the region was once under the Brunei Sultanate's thalassocracy, the Bruneian Malay people have left a lasting culinary influence, particularly on the cookery of the coastal Muslim communities of East Malaysia. According to the source paper written in 2006, the Malaysian food industrial sector accounted for about 14% of the total manufacturing energy consumption. 
Historically speaking, fresh produce is often scarce for hunter-gatherer nomadic tribes around the world, thus it is usually preserved out of necessity for important events and festivals. The tribal peoples of Sabah and Sarawak are no different - most of them have developed age-old techniques for curing, fermenting or preserving their supplies of fresh meat, fruit and vegetables. For example, during festive occasions the Murut people of Sabah would serve tamba (jeruk in the Malay language) made from fresh raw wild boar or river fish, which is stuffed in bamboo tubes along with rice and salt and left to ferment for a few weeks, a technique which is also practised by the Lun Bawang people across the border in Sarawak. Fermented products are also frequently used as a cooking ingredient besides eaten on their own. Dayak households in Sarawak may saute their version of fermented meat with garlic and tapioca leaves (either fresh or pickled), and fermented tempoyak is a popular cooking seasoning. [ citation needed ]
The production and consumption of traditional liquor play an important cultural role for the non-Muslim peoples of East Malaysia. Alcoholic drinks made from rice is the most common form, as well as the widely available. In Sabah, the Penampang Kadazan lihing is perhaps the most well known. Yet due to the historical lack of a standardised Kadazandusun language used and understood statewide, ethnic groups from other districts in Sabah have very different names for similar fermented rice-based drinks: hiing (certain Dusun languages), kinomol, segantang, kinarung, kinopi, linahas, and even tapai   To add to the confusion, tapai proper as understood by most Peninsular Malaysians is a fermented sweet and sour rice paste served as a snack or dessert, although further fermentation of the tapai to produce alcoholic drinks is possible. The preferred party drink of the Murut, made from the tuber of the cassava or tapioca plant, is also called tapai.  The Iban of Sarawak call their rice wine tuak, which must not be confused with Sabahan talak, which is a hard liquor made from rice. To the native peoples of Sarawak, tuak may also refer to any alcoholic drink made from fermenting any carbohydrate-rich substance besides rice. [ citation needed ]
Rice (Malay: nasi) is the most important staple food in Malaysia. According to Indonesian-born food and cookery writer Sri Owen, there is some evidence for rice cultivation found in the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo dated 2300 BC, and about 900 years of history for the state of Kelantan in West Malaysia. Today Malaysia produces about seventy percent of the amount of rice it needs to support itself and the rest is imported.  This is a matter of policy as the government believes that national resources can be used more profitably instead of attempting to achieve self-sufficiency with rice production the prevalent attitude is that revenue generated from its industries enables the country to import up to half the rice it needs.  Nevertheless, the government is fully committed and involved in planning, allocating resources and managing subsidies for the rice farming industry. The state of Kedah is considered the "rice bowl"   (Malay: jelapang padi) of the country, accounting for about half of Malaysia's total production of rice.
Plain steamed white rice, to be served with side dishes of meat or vegetables, is typically prepared with an electric rice cooker at home. Some households and food establishments prefer to cook rice on a stove top with the absorption method or the rapid-boil method. Compressed rice, called nasi himpit, is another method of preparing and cooking rice: the rice is wrapped with fronds or leaves and compressed into the form of a cylinder, which is then cooked by boiling. The rice would compress and merge during the cooking process. Compressed rice is usually eaten cold with some sort of gravy, although it may be served warm in a broth or soup. A notable variant of compressed rice prepared by the Bugis community is burasak: rice is precooked with coconut milk before it is wrapped in banana leaves and steamed until fully cooked.
Besides the ubiquitous white rice, there are different types of locally grown and imported rice available in the market, and each type has a specific cooking method to bring out optimal results.  Glutinous rice (Malay: pulut) is one example: because of its low amylose and high amylopectin content which results in a sticky texture after cooking, glutinous rice is prepared with different measurements and techniques and is not suitably interchangeable with regular rice. It is typically used for making snacks and desserts, but glutinous rice is also prepared as a savoury staple by indigenous peoples like the Orang Asli as well as the Dayak people of Borneo. Lemang is glutinous rice roasted in a hollowed bamboo tube, and is prepared for festive occasions like Ari Gawai, Hari Raya Aidilfitri, and Hari Raya Aidiladha. 
A popular dish based on rice in Malaysia is nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms , rice steamed with coconut milk and pandan leaves to give it a rich fragrance. Of Malay origin, nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms is very popular and frequently referred to as the national dish.  It is customarily served with ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms or fried anchovies, peanuts, sliced cucumber, hard-boiled eggs and sambal. Although it is often considered a breakfast dish, it is served in a variety of ways and commonly eaten at any time of day due to its versatility. For a more substantial meal, nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms may be served with fried chicken, curries, or a spicy meat stew called rendang.
Congee is a type of rice porridge or gruel popular among Malaysia's ethnic communities. It is eaten primarily as a breakfast food or late supper. It is also considered particularly suitable for the sick as a mild, easily digestible food.  Congee is called bubur code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay 粥 written in Chinese, pronounced as zhou in Mandarin Chinese and juk in Cantonese and kanji (கஞ்சி) in Tamil. It may be served plain with little embellishment, or cooked with ingredients like fish slices, seafood, chicken, beef, pork, vegetables, and spices. The importance and popularity of congee in the Malaysian diet is such that bubur ayam or chicken congee is a permanent fixture on the menu of Malaysian McDonald's restaurants. 
Noodles are another popular staple, particularly in Malaysian Chinese cuisine, but used by other groups as well. Noodles such as bi hoon (米粉, Hokkien: bí-hún, Malay: bihun code: msa promoted to code: ms rice vermicelli), kuay teow (粿條, Hokkien: kóe-tiâu) or ho fun (河粉, Cantonese: ho4 fan2 flat rice noodles), mee (麵 or 面, Hokkien: mī, Malay: mi code: msa promoted to code: ms yellow noodles), mee suah (麵線 or 面线, Hokkien: mī-sòaⁿ wheat vermicelli), yee meen (伊麵 or 伊面, Cantonese: ji1 min6 golden wheat noodles), dongfen (冬粉, Hokkien: tang-hún, Cantonese: dung1 fan2 cellophane noodles), Lao Shu Fen (老鼠粉, Cantonese: lou5 syu2 fan2 silver needle noodles), and others provide an alternative source of carbohydrate to a serving of rice that accompanies every meal. Stir-fried noodle dishes (Malay: mee goreng) are ubiquitous throughout Malaysia's cities, towns and villages, with numerous localised variants prepared by various ethnic communities according to their culinary traditions and preferences.
Malaysia does not produce wheat, and all supplies are imported from wheat-producing countries. Nevertheless, Western-style white bread and Indian breads made with wheat flour like roti canai are fairly common foods in the modern Malaysian diet today. A typical way of serving white bread in Malaysia is toasting it and spreading it with kaya, a sweet spread made from a base of coconut milk, eggs and sugar. Reflecting the British colonial influence in Malaysia, kaya toast or roti bakar code: msa promoted to code: ms is a popular breakfast staple and afternoon tea snack. It is typically paired with a cup of coffee or tea and soft-boiled eggs seasoned to taste with soy sauce and ground white pepper. Roti kahwin code: msa promoted to code: ms is a variation where butter is sandwiched along with a layer of kaya code: msa promoted to code: ms between slices of untoasted white bread.
Traditional wheat-based pleated steamed bao or pao (Chinese : 包子) is a Chinese staple which has become tightly woven into Malaysia's gastronomic fabric. Pao are found in restaurants doing brunch dim sum trade, as well as specialist Chinese kopitiam (coffee shops). Sweet fillings may include tausa, lotus seed paste, kaya code: msa promoted to code: ms , pandan, ground peanuts, and custard savoury fillings may consist of delicious stewed char siu (Chinese : 叉燒), chicken or pork. Malay versions (pau code: msa promoted to code: ms ) may be found in night markets (pasar malam code: msa promoted to code: ms ) and they are always halal, with fillings of curried potato, chicken or beef. Some variants have a quail egg in the middle in addition to the curry.
Oven-baked buns are also available in specialist bakeries, kopitiam code: msa promoted to code: ms , and restaurants. One local speciality in particular - a bun with a buttery core and topped with a crispy and fragrant coffee pastry crust - has achieved iconic status in Malaysia, and franchises like Rotiboy and Pappa Roti which specialise in these coffee buns have successfully expanded abroad to multiple nations and spawned hundreds of outlets. However, the popular buns that remain a favourite among Malaysians are the buns that are filled with a sweet shredded coconut filling, kaya code: msa promoted to code: ms (coconut jam), pandan kaya code: msa promoted to code: ms (screwpine with coconut jam), sweet corn, chocolate, red bean paste and butter buns.
Other staple Edit
Like Peninsular Malaysia, rice is the undisputed staple food for the majority of the people of Sabah and Sarawak. Rice is central to Kadazandusun culture, and its paramount importance is reflected in the annual Kaamatan festival, as well as traditional beliefs and customs since antiquity which revolve around the veneration of rice spirits. But for other ethnic communities throughout Sabah and Sarawak, cassava or tapioca tubers as well as sago starch are also popular staples. The tapioca tuber is just as important as rice to the Bajau people of Sabah, while the Dayak peoples of Sarawak make extensive use of both the tuber and leaves of the tapioca plant in their cooking. Sago starch is derived from the pith extracted from the sago palm, and is the staple food for the Melanau and the Penan peoples of Sarawak. 
Sago starch is prepared as a gooey and sticky paste by the Bisaya and Kedayan communities called ambuyat, and is called linut by the Melanau. It is eaten by rolling the paste around the prongs of a bamboo fork, and dipped it into soup, sambal, or other varieties of gravies and dipping sauces. Aside from being the source for sago pith, the sago palm is a source of another delicacy for the indigenous peoples of Borneo: the sago grub. Called butod in Sabah and ulat mulong in Sarawak, sago grubs are typically eaten raw but also served deep fried, roasted or sauteed. [ citation needed ]
Malaysian poultry is handled according to halal standards to conform with the country's dominant and official religion, Islam.  Imported poultry is available at major hypermarkets, supermarkets and speciality stores especially in affluent areas where a significant expatriate community can be found.
Fish, both freshwater and saltwater, features prominently in the Malaysian diet. Most local fish is purchased soon after it is caught, while frozen fish is generally imported. Such fish, namely salmon and cod, are well received on the Malaysian table but are not found in Malaysian waters. [ citation needed ]
Many types of seafood are consumed in Malaysia, including shrimp or prawn, crab, squid, cuttlefish, clams, cockles, snails, sea cucumber and octopus. In general, members of all ethnic communities enjoy seafood, which is considered halal by Malaysian Muslims (according to Shafi’i fiqh), though some species of crabs are not considered halal as they can live on both land and sea. Sea cucumbers are considered halal. 
Beef is common in the Malaysian diet, though it is notable that the consumption of beef is proscribed by some followers of Hinduism and certain Chinese folk religious sects. Beef can be commonly found cooked in curries, stews, roasted, or eaten with noodles. Malays generally eat beef that is halal. Australian beef prepared under the Government Supervised Muslim Slaughter System (AGSMS) is imported into Malaysia and is halal. 
Malaysian Malays, who form about half of Malaysia's population, are Muslim and therefore do not consume pork since Islam forbids it. This does not prohibit others from producing and consuming pork products, and thus pork can be found in wet markets, supermarkets and hypermarkets, usually displayed with a non-halal disclaimer. Pork is consumed by the Chinese communities, the Iban, the Kadazan, Murut, Lun Bawang/Lundayeh, the Orang Asli, and expatriates. [ citation needed ]
In Malaysia, the term "mutton" refers to goat meat lamb, or the meat of a young sheep, is always imported from countries like Australia and New Zealand. In the past mutton was primarily associated with Malaysian Indian cuisine, and was not as widely eaten due to health concerns as well as its perceived gamey flavour. Today, dishes like whole spit roast of mutton, mutton biryani and mutton soup are now a common sight at banquets and events. Today, the demand for mutton during the fasting month and Hari Raya period has now far exceeded that for Deepavali and Christmas combined. 
Locally-grown produce is available year-round as Malaysia is a tropical country and does not have four seasons. During rainy seasons, vegetable yields may decrease (which may result in an increase in market price), but rarely if ever stop altogether. Imported produce has made inroads into the market in recent years, either to supplement local demand for essential ingredients like garlic and potatoes, or to supply produce which does not grow well in Malaysia's climate and soil conditions. A few regions in Malaysia, like Cameron Highlands and the foothills adjacent to Mount Kinabalu provide the appropriate mean temperatures and soil conditions for the cultivation of temperate produce like tea.
Malaysian-grown greens, tubers and vegetables commonly found nationwide include but are not limited to amaranth (bayam code: msa promoted to code: ms ), bean sprouts (taugeh code: msa promoted to code: ms ), brinjals (terung code: msa promoted to code: ms ), bitter gourd (peria code: msa promoted to code: ms ), bok choi (sawi code: msa promoted to code: ms ), cabbage (kobis code: msa promoted to code: ms ), choy sum, cucumber (timun code: msa promoted to code: ms ), Chinese celery (daun sup code: msa promoted to code: ms ), coriander (daun ketumbar code: msa promoted to code: ms ), ginger (halia code: msa promoted to code: ms ), green beans, water spinach (kangkung), ladies' fingers (bendi code: msa promoted to code: ms ), leeks, lettuce, lotus root, maize (jagung code: msa promoted to code: ms ), napa cabbage (kobis cina code: msa promoted to code: ms ), sweet potatoes (ubi keledek code: msa promoted to code: ms ), spring onions (daun bawang code: msa promoted to code: ms ), katuk (cekur manis code: msa promoted to code: ms or sayur manis code: msa promoted to code: ms ), pumpkin (labu code: msa promoted to code: ms ), shiitake mushrooms (cendawan code: msa promoted to code: ms ), stink beans (petai code: msa promoted to code: ms ), tapioca (ubi kayu code: msa promoted to code: ms ), taro or yam (ubi keladi code: msa promoted to code: ms ), tomatoes, yambean or turnip, turmeric (kunyit code: msa promoted to code: ms ), and yardlong beans (kacang panjang code: msa promoted to code: ms ), carrot (lobak merah code: msa promoted to code: ms ), and scallions (daun bawang code: msa promoted to code: ms ).
In some areas in Malaysia local produce is grown on a small scale, and many rural communities like the Peninsular Orang Asli and certain tribal peoples of Sarawak forage wild edible ferns or vegetables to supplement their diet. Vegetable fern, better known as pucuk paku pakis code: msa promoted to code: ms , is perhaps the most widely available fern and is found in eateries and restaurants throughout the nation. Stenochlaena palustris is another type of wild fern popularly used for food. Endemic to East Malaysia, it is called midin code: msa promoted to code: ms in Sarawak and is prized for its fiddleheads by locals and visitors. It is known by the native peoples of Sabah as lemiding code: msa promoted to code: ms , lembiding code: msa promoted to code: ms or lombiding code: msa promoted to code: ms , where both the leaves and the fiddleheads of the plant are eaten. The young shoots of plants like bamboo and coconut are popularly harvested as food by communities outside urban areas.
A popular way to cook leafy vegetables like kangkung code: msa promoted to code: ms and sweet potato leaves is stir frying with a pungent sauce made from belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms (shrimp paste) and hot chilli peppers. Other vegetables popularly cooked this way include bean pods and fiddlehead ferns like paku pakis code: msa promoted to code: ms and midin code: msa promoted to code: ms . Vegetables like carrots, cucumbers, onions and yardlong beans are used to make a localised variety of pickle called acar. Vegetables and herbs are also popularly served undressed and often raw in some rural indigenous communities as ulam. An ulam code: msa promoted to code: ms spread may include items such as banana blossoms, cucumber, winged beans, pegaga leaves, petai code: msa promoted to code: ms , and yardlong beans, typically eaten with a pungent dipping sauce like sambal belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms .
Vegetarianism in Malaysia Edit
As of 2012, about one million people within Malaysia's total population were practising vegetarians, and vegetarian food is much easier to obtain when dining out today. However, because of the heavy emphasis on meat and seafood by traditional Malay cuisine as well as the common inclusion of shrimp paste and other seafood products in many local dishes, diners may find it difficult to negotiate their way around menus in search of vegetarian or vegan food in Malay cuisine restaurants.
Restaurants that display signs with the words sayur sayuran, vegetarian or the Chinese characters 素 or 斎 will offer a decent variety of food for diners who abstain from meat. There are many of them across the country, particularly in urban areas. These restaurants serve only vegetarian/vegan food and absolutely no meat or animal products is used in their cooking. Even restaurants that specialise in meat and seafood will make vegetarian dishes upon request. Some meat-serving restaurants have a vegetarian section in their menu.
Over 80% of Malaysian Chinese identify themselves as Buddhists, and some follow a vegetarian diet at least some of the time. Some vegetarian Chinese cuisine restaurants offer an exclusively vegetarian menu (Chinese: 素食, 斎) featuring Chinese dishes which resemble meat dishes in look and even taste like "roast pork", fried "fish" with "skin" and "bones", and "chicken drumsticks" complete with a "bone". These restaurants are run by proprietors who abstain from consumption of animal products and strong-tasting vegetables and spices as way of life for religious reasons, and are essentially vegan. The meat analogues used are often locally produced as opposed to imported, and are made solely from ingredients like soy, gluten, mushrooms and tuber vegetables.
Organic vegetarians has also slowly become a trendy modern vegetarian dietary nowsady. Most of the organic vegetarian menu will include superfood ingredients for example : organic quinoa, millet, chia seeds, flax seeds, avocado, egg, tofu, pine nuts, bluberry, almond milk, etc. A lot of organic fruit and vegetables are locally produced in recent years. There is even an organic version of vegetarian sambal balacan, Nasi lemak chilli paste, etc.
Buddhist vegetarian restaurants are likely to be found in areas with a high concentration of Chinese and tend to be especially busy on certain festive days where many Buddhists adopt a strict vegetarian diet for at least a day. In Buddhism, some people who are full-time vegetarians are observing the Buddhist Five Precepts. They are vegetarian because they are observing the precept to abstain from killing or harming living beings intentionally. Another precept is to abstain from taking drugs or intoxicants for enjoyment, hence, alcohol is not used in most pure vegetarian shops. (This is different, however, when ordering vegetarian food off the menu of restaurants that serve meat dishes.)
Vegetarianism has a long and revered tradition in Indian culture. Some Malaysian Indians are born-and-bred vegetarians who often hail from a family line with generations of vegetarians. Some others practice vegetarianism on auspicious festivals such as Thai Ponggal, Hindu New Year, Deepavali, Full Moon Prayers, and on certain days of the week as a symbol of respect when they visit holy temples. Abstaining from meat before fulfilling a vow is a common practice to bring the body to a neutral and focused state, physically and mentally, during Thaipusam and other holy prayer events. Dishes, of South and North Indian types, are based on the ancient concept of Ayurveda and are known to include arusuvai or six types of tastes. Some Indian vegetarian dishes may incorporate dairy products and honey (lacto vegetarian). Some others are heavily based on lavish coconut milk and nuts. There are many Indian eateries and restaurants in Malaysia that offer a pure vegetarian menu. South Indian restaurants, in particular, offer no shortage of meatless options such as Thali meal, also known as banana leaf rice, which is often vegetarian by default, and a wide array of sweets, snacks and light meals such as kesari, tose, idli, uppuma, vade, aviyal, idiyappam and paniyaram.
Malaysia's tropical climate allows for fruit to be grown all year round. A huge variety of common and obscure fruits, either locally grown or imported are available throughout the country. While the vast majority of fruits grown in Malaysia naturally thrive in the tropics, a few areas in the country like Cameron Highlands or Kundasang in Sabah have a different climate zone which enables the cultivation of temperate fruits like strawberries. Fruit is commonly served after a meal as dessert, and fruit juices are highly sought after as drinks of choice in a climate that is hot and humid all year round. Pickled fruits or jeruk code: msa promoted to code: ms are popular and widely available, whether sold from street stalls or specialist shops. Many localities are named after native fruits, most notably Alor Setar (buah setar) and Malacca (buah melaka).
Fruits are used to make a popular salad dish called rojak (Chinese: 水果囉喏). It consists of pieces of fruit and vegetable bound with a viscous dark sauce made from shrimp paste, sugar, chilli, and lime juice. The Penang version is particularly popular and well regarded. The dish is usually topped with a generous sprinkling of toasted ground peanuts.
Notable fruits which are cultivated in Malaysia include:
- The banana, or pisang code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. Many different cultivars are available on the market, and plantain is used for pisang goreng. Other parts of the banana plant may be used for culinary purposes.
- The calamansi lime, or limau kasturi code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. Widely used as a souring agent in Malaysian cooking, the juice of the calamansi lime is also savoured on its own with ice and secondary flavourings like green apple juice, pandan leaves and dried preserved plums.
- The cempedak, a fruit with a large and rough pod-like body. The edible flesh coating each pod is sweet, and has a soft custard-like texture.
- The durian, a fruit with a spiky outer shell and a characteristic odour is a local tropical fruit that is notable because it provokes strong emotions either of loving it or hating it. It is also known as the "King of the Fruits". Several species of durian exist throughout Malaysia - common cultivars come with pale cream or yellow coloured arils, whereas some varieties found in Borneo are naturally bright red, orange or even purple in colour.
- The guava, called jambu code: msa promoted to code: ms or jambu batu code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. It is a crunchy fruit often eaten plain or garnished with a tart seasoning mix.
- The honeydew, or tembikai susu code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. This aromatic green melon is often cut up and served with cooked sago pearls in chilled coconut milk as a dessert.
- The jackfruit, or nangka code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. It is an enormous fruit similar in appearance to cempedak, but quite different in taste and texture. The fleshy covering of each pod is firm and sweet. Unripe jackfruit is occasionally used for cooking savoury meals.
- The langsat, a fruit which are borne in clusters similar to grapes and resemble tiny potatoes, with a taste likened to a sweet and tart combination of grape and grapefruit. A second, larger variety known as duku code: msa promoted to code: ms generally bear fruit which are large, generally round, and have somewhat thick skin that does not release sap when cooked. The seeds are small with thick flesh, a sweet scent, and a sweet or sour alin.
- The longan, which means "dragon eye" in Chinese. A related species called mata kucing code: msa promoted to code: ms (literally "cat's eye" in Malay) has a virtually identical taste to commercially cultivated longan. However, the mata kucing code: msa promoted to code: ms fruit (Euphoria malaiense) is smaller, the fleshy aril is thinner, and the yellow rind is bumpy and leathery like a lychee fruit.
- The mango, or mangga code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. The state of Perlis is famous for its Harumanis variety (from the mangifera indica cultivar), which is registered as a product of geographical indication (GI) with the Malaysian Intellectual Property Organisation (MyIPO).  Another notable species of mango found only in Borneo and used extensively in local cookery is the mangifera pajang, known in Sabah as bambangan code: msa promoted to code: ms and Sarawak as buah mawang code: msa promoted to code: ms .
- The mangosteen, or manggis code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. In contrast to the durian, mangosteen is often called the "queen of the fruits".
- The papaya, or betik code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. Another common fruit available year-round in Malaysia, and widely eaten to conclude a meal.
- The pineapple, or nanas code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. It is widely eaten as a fruit and used extensively in local cooking, such as a curried pineapple dish called pajeri nanas code: msa promoted to code: ms .
- The pitaya, better known locally as dragon fruit. Dragon fruit is available in red and white fleshed varieties.
- The pomelo, or limau bali code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. Pomelos grown in the Sungai Gedung area in the state of Perak has been granted GI status. It is also called limau tambun code: msa promoted to code: ms , after the town of Tambun which is also famed for its pomelo produce. As pomelos are associated with traditional Chinese festivities, most farms harvest twice a year in conjunction with Chinese New Year and Mid Autumn Festival.
- The rambutan, as the name suggests, have fleshy pliable spines or 'hairs' on its outer shell which is usually red or yellow in colour. Once the hairy exterior is peeled away, the tender, fleshy, sweet and sour tasting fruit is revealed. 
- The rose apple, called jambu air code: msa promoted to code: ms or jambu merah code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay, which is not to be confused with jambu batu code: msa promoted to code: ms or guava. The term refers to various Syzygium species which are grown for their fruit. The fruit may be eaten on its own, or tossed through a rojak code: msa promoted to code: ms salad.
- The sapodilla, better known locally as buah ciku code: msa promoted to code: ms . Its flesh has a grainy texture akin to ripened pear with a sweet malty flavour.
- The soursop, known as durian belanda code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay and lampun code: msa promoted to code: ms to the Dusun people of Borneo. The fruit is commonly made into juice and smoothies, and the leaves of the soursop plant are boiled and taken as a herbal infusion.
- The starfruit, or belimbing code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. Malaysia is a global leader in starfruit production by volume and ships the fruit widely to Asia and Europe. 
- The tarap, also called marang code: msa promoted to code: ms , is a fruit that is native to Borneo and is related to cempedak and jackfruit. While the fruits are about the same size and shape as a durian and also emit a noxious odour, the spines of the tarap are soft and rubbery compared to the durian's hard, thorny spines. The fruit itself is smooth, soft and creamy, and the flavour is reminiscent of sweet custard apple with a hint of tartness.
- The watermelon, or tembikai code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. This popular fruit comes in red and yellow varieties.
- The sugar apple, or epal kustard code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay. This fruit comes in red or green varieties.
Chilli peppers are indispensable in Malaysian kitchens, and both fresh and dried forms are used. Chillies come in several sizes, shapes and colours. As a general rule, two type of chilli cultivars are the most commonly available: the bird's eye chilli (cili padi code: msa promoted to code: ms ), which although small in size are extremely pungent and very hot and longer varieties, which tend to be much milder. Green chillies are more peppery in taste, while red chillies, green chillies which have been left to ripen, have a slightly sweeter heat. If a milder flavour is preferred, the seeds and membranes are removed from the chilli pods before they are cut, or the chillies are left whole and removed prior to serving. Some common uses include grinding the chillies into a paste or sambal chopping fresh chillies as a condiment or garnish and pickling whole or cut chillies.
Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is essential to Malaysian cooking. It is a type of shrimp paste which is pressed into a block and sun-dried. In its raw form it has a pungent smell. Once cooked, the aroma and flavour mellow and contribute a depth of flavour to the dish.  To prepare belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms for use, one typically wraps a small amount in foil, which is then roasted over a flame or placed into a preheated oven. Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is most commonly pounded or blended with local chilli peppers, shallots and lime juice to make the most popular and ubiquitous relish in Malaysia, sambal belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms . Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is also crumbled into a ground spice paste called rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms , which usually includes garlic, ginger, onions or shallots, and fresh or dried chilli peppers. A rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms paste is similar in form and function to an Indian wet masala paste or Thai curry paste, and is often browned and caramelised (Malay: tumis) to mellow the raw flavours of its component ingredients and produce a harmonised finish.
The coconut (Malay: kelapa) is another quintessential feature of Malaysian cuisine, and virtually all parts of the plant are used for culinary purposes. The white fleshy part of the coconut endosperm may be grated, shredded and used as is dried to make desiccated coconut or toasted until dark brown and ground to make kerisik. Grated coconut flesh is also squeezed to make coconut milk, which is used extensively in savoury dishes and desserts throughout the country. Coconut oil is used for cooking and cosmetic purposes, and may be either obtained by processing copra (dried coconut flesh) or extracted from fresh coconuts as virgin coconut oil. Coconut water, the clear liquid found inside the cavity of each coconut, is a popular cooler in Malaysia's hot and humid climate. Gula melaka code: msa promoted to code: ms is unrefined palm sugar produced from the sap of the coconut flower. It is the most traditional sweetener in Malaysian cooking and imbues a rich caramel-like flavour with a hint of coconut. Coconut fronds are traditionally used to wrap food, hollowed out coconut husks and shells may be used as a source of charcoal fuel for barbecued meats and traditional pastry making, and even the apical bud or growing tip of the coconut palm is a popular delicacy served in rural communities and specialty restaurants.
Soy sauce of different varieties is another important ingredient. Light soy sauce contributes its pleasantly salty flavour to a variety of stir-fries, marinades and steamed dishes. In some hawker establishments, freshly sliced or pickled chillies arrive immersed in light soy sauce to be used for dipping. Dark soy sauce is thicker, more intense in flavour and less salty. It is often used when a heartier flavour is desired, particularly with masak kicap code: msa promoted to code: ms (a style of braising with a blend of soy sauce varieties) dishes, and also to darken the color of a dish. Kicap manis, sweetened soy sauce sometimes flavoured with star anise or garlic, is also a popular seasoning for cooking. The sweet and savoury taste of kicap manis code: msa promoted to code: ms also functions as a substitute to approximate the combination of dark soy sauce and thick caramel sauce, which is primarily used to colour and season stewed dishes.
Common herbs include lemongrass (Malay: serai), a type of grass with a lemony aroma and flavour. Young, fresh stems are more desirable as older stems tend to acquire a woody texture. The tender white part closest to the base of the stem is thinly sliced and eaten raw in salads, or pounded with other aromatics to make a rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms . It is also used whole in boiled and simmered dishes. The pandan (screwpine) leaf is the Asian equivalent of vanilla in Western cuisine. Its subtle aroma is released when the leaves are bruised by tying one or two long leaves into a knot, and used for cooking curries, rice and desserts. The leaves can also be used to wrap items like rice, chicken or fish for cooking. Pandan leaf is also available in liquid essence or powdered form to flavour and colour cakes. Turmeric (Malay: kunyit) is a rhizome popular for its flavour as well as colouring properties. The leaves and flowers of the turmeric plant are also used in cooking or eaten raw.
Tofu products, specifically fried tofu, are widely used as cooking ingredients and as side accompaniments. While fried tofu can be bland in flavour on its own, its main contribution is texture and especially with tofu puffs, the ability to soak up the flavour of whatever they are cooked in. Fried tofu products are found as a versatile component ingredient for dishes like stir fried noodles, rojak (fruit and vegetable salad), noodle soups, and stews. A popular way of serving fried tofu on its own is a salad with bean sprouts, shredded cucumber and spring onions, covered in a thick sweet and spicy dressing and dusted with roasted ground peanuts. Fried tofu may also be stuffed with a mixture of ground meat or shredded vegetables.
Dried seafood products contribute a savoury depth of flavour to some Malaysian dishes. Small dried anchovies, known as ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms , are very popular. It acquires a crispy texture when deep-fried, and is served as an accompaniment or prepared as a sambal code: msa promoted to code: ms relish in this capacity. Ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms is also boiled to make fish stock in fact, instant ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms stock granules are a popular seasoning in modern kitchens. Dried shrimp and salted dried fish are also used in various ways.
Other essential seasoning and garnishes include tamarind (Malay: asam jawa), specifically the paste-like pulp extracted from the fruit pod which contributes a tart flavour to many dishes. Candlenuts (Malay: buah keras) are similar in appearance to macadamia nuts, being round, cream-coloured and having a high oil content. Candlenuts are normally ground to thicken sauces. Lup cheong code: msa promoted to code: ms is a type of dried Chinese sausage made from pork and spices. Mainly used by the Malaysian Chinese community, these sweet sausages are usually sliced very thinly and added for additional flavour and texture. Recent studies have shown that there are 62 commonly consumed Malaysian foods that include biogenic amines.
There is no standard breakfast (Malay: sarapan) menu due to Malaysia's multi-ethnic social fabric as well as the advent of modern influences. Western-style breakfast like breakfast cereal, cooked eggs and toast have become commonplace in homes and when dining out, but heartier traditional fare based predominantly on noodles and rice dishes are still very popular. One may choose to start the day with the ubiquitous nasi lemak or kuih venture for Chinese-style congee, dim sum and noodle soups or settle for Indian-influenced fare such as roti canai, idli (Tamil: இட்லி iṭli /ɪɖlɪ/ ), thosai (Tamil: தோசை tōcai /t̪oːsaj/ ), and upma. In the state of Kelantan, the term nasi berlauk refers to a breakfast meal which consists of a small serve of rice and complementary dishes or lauk.
For lunch and dinner, food is not customarily served in courses but rather concurrently. A meal may consist of a single dish for solitary diners, or rice with many complementary dishes shared by all. At restaurants where food is cooked to order, there is often no distinction between appetizers/starters and main courses, and food will arrive at the table whenever it is ready. At some traditionally-run eateries where pre-cooked food is served, diners are meant to help themselves by starting with a plate of plain rice and choose from a buffet spread of assorted dishes. Like the Indonesian Nasi Padang, this is not an all-you-can-eat for a fixed price dining experience. The cost of the meal would depend on what the diner selects and how many different items were placed on the plate for consumption. In Malay-run warung (a small family-owned casual eatery or café) or restaurants (kedai makan), this style of dining is known as nasi campur which means "mixed rice". A similar concept exist at some eateries serving home-style Malaysian Chinese food, where it may be known as economy rice (Chinese: 杂饭).
A practice known as "open house" (Malay: rumah terbuka) is popular during festive seasons, and even as an elaborate occasion to celebrate birthdays and weddings. Open house events are traditionally held at the home of the host: well-wishers are received and that everyone, regardless of background, is invited to attend. Home-cooked or catered food is provided by the host(s) at their own expense, and while it is acceptable for guests to bring along gifts for the host, they are expected to help themselves to the food as much as they like. Open house events may also be held at restaurants and larger public venues, especially when hosted by government agencies or corporations.
A kopitiam or kopi tiam is a traditional coffee shop patronised for meals and beverages, predominantly operated by Chinese proprietors and especially members of the Hainanese community. The word kopi is a Malay/Hokkien term for coffee and tiam is the Hokkien and Hakka term for shop (Chinese : 店). A common sight in Malaysia and neighbouring Singapore, menus often feature offerings like nasi lemak, boiled eggs, roti bakar, noodle dishes, bread and kuih. The owners of some kopitiam establishments may lease premise space to independent stallholders, who sometimes offer more specialised dishes beyond standard Chinese kopitiam fare. Typical beverages include Milo, a malted chocolate drink considered iconic to Malaysians of all ages, as well as coffee (kopi) and tea (teh). Diners would use slang terms specific to kopitiam culture to order and customise drinks to their taste.
The omnipresent Mamak stall is a Malaysian institution. Available throughout the country and particularly popular in urban areas, Mamak stalls and restaurants offer a wide range of food and some are open 24 hours a day. The proprietors of these establishments are members of Malaysia's Tamil Muslim community, who have developed a distinct culinary style and wield an enormous influence on Malaysian food culture disproportionate to their numbers. A type of meal served buffet-style at some Mamak eateries is called nasi kandar, which is analogous to the Malay nasi campur where you pay for what you have actually eaten. The diner is to choose from a variety of curried dishes made with chicken, beef, mutton, or seafood. A mixture of curry sauces is then poured on the provided rice: this is called banjir (literally means "flooding").
Malay cuisine Edit
For a traditional Malay meal, rice is considered the centerpiece of a meal, with everything else considered as an accompaniment, relish or side for the rice. Malay cuisine bears many similarities to Indonesian cuisine, in particular some of the regional traditions from Sumatra. It has also been influenced by Chinese, Indian, Thai and many other cultures throughout history, producing a distinct cuisine of their own. Some regional Malay dishes, such as arisa and kacang pool, are examples of influence from Arab cuisine due to longstanding historical and religious ties. Many Malay dishes revolve around a rempah, which is usually sauteed in oil (tumis) to draw out flavours to form the base of a dish. A dipping relish called sambal is an essential accompaniment for most Malay dishes.
- Air bandung - a cold milk drink flavoured with rose cordial syrup, giving it a pink colour. Despite the name, there is no connection to the city of Bandung in Indonesia. Bandung within this context refers to anything that comes in pairs or is mixed from many ingredients. 
- Asam pedas - a sour and spicy stew of meat, with the core ingredients being tamarind and chilli. Depending on region, tomatoes, lady's fingers, shredded torch ginger bud and Vietnamese coriander (Malay: daun kesum) may also be added. Usually cooked with fish like mackerel or stingray, although some recipes use chicken and even oxtail.
- Ayam goreng - a generic term for deep fried chicken, typically marinated in a base of turmeric and other seasonings prior to cooking.
- Ayam masak merah - this dish literally means red-cooked chicken in English. Pieces of chicken are first fried to a golden brown then slowly braised in a spicy tomato sauce. Peas are sometimes added to the dish, and it is garnished with shredded kaffir lime leaves as well as coriander. It is often paired with nasi tomato - rice cooked with tomato sauce or paste, milk, dried spices, and a sauteed rempah base of garlic, onions, ginger.
- Ayam percik - also known as ayam golek in some states, ayam percik is grilled marinated chicken basted with a spiced coconut milk gravy.
- Bubur lambuk - a savoury rice porridge consumed during the fasting month of Ramadhan, made with a mixture of lemongrass, spices, vegetables, and chicken or beef. It is usually cooked communally at a local mosque, which is then distributed to the congregation as a meal to break the fast every evening. In the state of Terengganu, bubur lambuk is prepared with wild herbs, budu, sweet potatoes, and seafood.
- Gulai - the Malay term for a curried stew. The main ingredients for gulai may be poultry, beef, mutton, various kinds of offals, fish and seafood, and also vegetables such as cassava leaves and green/unripe jackfruit. The gravy is usually yellowish-brown in color due to the sauteed and browned rempah which forms its base, and the addition of ground turmeric. The gravy's consistency may vary in thickness depending on the cook.
- Ikan bakar - barbecued or char grilled fish, usually smeared with a sambal-based sauce. It may also be accompanied with air asam, a dip made from shrimp paste, onion, chillis and tamarind juice.
- Ikan goreng - a generic term for shallow or deep fried fish, which is almost always marinated prior to cooking. There are countless recipes and variants for what is arguably the most popular and typical method of cooking fish in Malaysia.
- Kebebe- the food which made of 13 ingredients that has a bitter, salty, sweet, sour and spicy mixed taste. Its allegedly able to get rid of nausea after taking too much food.
- Kerabu - a type of salad-like dish which can be made with any combination of cooked or uncooked fruits and vegetables, as well as the occasional meat or seafood ingredient. There are many kerabu recipes, which often have little common in preparation: kerabu taugeh is made with blanched bean sprouts and quintessentially Malay ingredients like kerisik, while preparations like kerabu mangga (shredded green mango salad) resemble a Thai-style yam salad in taste profile.
- Keropok lekor - a speciality of the state of Terengganu and other states on the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, keropok lekor is a savoury fritter made from a combination of batter and shredded fish. Sliced and fried just before serving, it is eaten with hot sauce.
- Kerutuk Daging - a type of coconut milk-based curry. Traditionally it is best eaten with white rice, sambal belacan and ulam-ulaman or Malay salad.
- Ketupat - a variant of compressed rice, wrapped in a woven palm frond pouch. As the rice boils, the grains expand to fill the pouch and the rice becomes compressed. This method of cooking gives the ketupat its characteristic form and texture. Usually eaten with rendang (a type of dry beef curry) or served as an accompaniment to satay, ketupat is also traditionally served on festive occasions such as Eid (Hari Raya Aidilfitri) as part of an open house spread.
- Laksam or Laksang - a different variant on laksa found in the northern and northeastern states of the Peninsular. Laksam consists of thick flat rice noodle rolls in a full-bodied, rich and slightly sweet white gravy of minced fish, coconut milk and shredded aromatic herbs.
- Masak lemak is a style of cooking which employs liberal amounts of turmeric-seasoned coconut milk. Sources of protein like chicken, seafood smoked meats and shelled molluscs, perhaps paired with fruits and vegetables such as bamboo shoots, pineapples and tapioca leaves are often cooked this way. Certain states are associated with a specific variant of this dish: for example, masak lemak cili api/padi is an iconic speciality of Negeri Sembilan.
- Mee Bandung Muar - Traditional noodle dish from Muar that cooked with yellow noodles coupled with egg in addition to a thick broth-gravy made of a combination of dried shrimps, onion, spices, shrimp paste and chillies. Prawn, meat, fish cakes and vegetables are also added. 
- Nasi dagang - rice cooked with coconut milk and fenugreek seeds, served with a fish gulai (usually tuna or ikan tongkol), fried shaved coconut, hard-boiled eggs and vegetable pickles. Nasi dagang ("trader's rice" in Malay) is a staple breakfast dish in the northeastern states of Kelantan and Terrenganu. It should not be confused with nasi lemak, as nasi lemak is often found sold side-by-side with nasi dagang for breakfast in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
- Nasi goreng - a generic term for fried rice, of which there are many, many different permutations and variations. Variants includes Nasi goreng kampung, Nasi goreng pattaya, and Nasi paprik. - a meal of steamed rice that is served with a variety of curries and side dishes.  It is a popular northern Malaysian dish from Penang.
- Nasi tumpang - rice packed in a cone-shaped banana leaf. A pack of nasi tumpang consists of an omelette, meat floss, chicken or shrimp curry and sweet gravy. It is traditionally served as a meal of convenience for travellers on the road.
- Nasi ulam - rice salad tossed with a variety of thinly shredded herbs and greens (daun kaduk, daun cekur, daun kesum and so on) as well as pounded dried shrimp, kerisik and chopped shallots. A variant popular in the eastern coast states of Peninsular Malaysia is called nasi kerabu, which is blue-coloured rice served with various herbs, dried fish or fried chicken, crackers, pickles and vegetables.
- Rendang - a spicy meat and coconut milk stew originating from the Minangkabau people of Indonesia, many of whom have settled in the state of Negeri Sembilan. Buffalo meat is the most traditional choice for this dish, but beef and chicken are by far more commonly used for rendang in restaurants and home cooking. The common addition of kerisik is another distinctively Malaysian touch. Rendang is traditionally prepared by the Malay community during festive occasions, served with ketupat or nasi minyak.
- Roti jala - The name is derived from the Malay words roti (bread) and jala (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation used to form its lacy pattern. Roti jala is usually eaten as an accompaniment to a curried dish, or served as dessert with a sweet dipping sauce.
- Roti john - a spiced meat omelette sandwich, popularly eaten for breakfast or as a snack.
- Sambal - the term sambal not only refers to a relish-like sauce made from chilli peppers pounded together with secondary ingredients like belacan and thinned with calamansi lime juice, it also refer to a cooking style where meat, seafood, and vegetables like brinjal (Malay: sambal terung) and stink bean (Malay: sambal petai) are braised in a spicy sambal-based sauce.
- Satay- one of Malaysia's most popular foods, Satay (written as sate in Malay) is made from marinated beef and chicken pieces skewered with wooden sticks and cooked on a charcoal grill. It is typically served with compressed rice cut onions, cucumber, and a spiced peanut gravy for dipping. The town of Kajang in Selangor is famous for its satay Sate Kajang is a term for a style of sate where the meat chunks are bigger than that of a typical satay, and the sweet peanut sauce is served along with a portion of fried chilli paste.
- Serunding - spiced meat floss. Serunding may also refer to any dish where the primary meat or vegetable ingredient is shredded and pulled into thin strands. In Indonesia, this term strictly refers to a dry-toasted grated coconut mix instead.
- Sup kambing - a hearty mutton soup slow simmered with aromatic herbs and spices, and garnished with fried shallots, fresh cilantro and a wedge of calamansi lime. Variants include soups cooked with beef (Malay: daging), beef ribs (Malay: tulang), or oxtail (Malay: buntut/ekor), all seasoned with the same herbs and spices.
- Tempoyak - fermented durian, traditionally stored in an urn. Tempoyak may be eaten as relish, or it can be added to braised dishes and stews as a primary flavouring (masak tempoyak).
Javanese-influenced cuisine Edit
There are certain Malaysian dishes with overt Javanese influences or are direct adaptations from Javanese cuisine, brought to Malaysia by Javanese immigrants who have been assimilated or integrated into the wider Malay community to various degrees. Javanese cuisine is highly distinct from mainstream Malay cooking, being noted for its simplicity and sweeter flavours, as opposed to mainstream Malay cuisine which is predominantly based on the complex and spicy regional cuisines of Sumatra. A popular way of serving Javanese-influenced food in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia is termed nasi ambang, which consists of shared platters of white rice served with accompaniments like chicken cooked in soy sauce or curried gravy, stir fried noodles, sambal goreng, fried shredded coconut pieces, egg, vegetables and so on. .
- Ayam penyet - deep fried chicken which is smashed prior to serving. The other key component to this dish is a spicy sambal. Other accompaniments include cucumbers, fried tofu and tempeh.
- Begedil - spherical fritters made from mashed potato and occasionally ground meat. It is called perkedel in Indonesia.
- Botok botok - steamed banana leaf parcels of sliced fish seasoned with ground spices and shredded herbs.
- Lontong - vegetables stewed in a lightly spiced coconut milk soup, usually served with compressed rice and additional condiments added either during cooking or in individual servings. It is eaten during festive occasions, and also as a breakfast meal. In Indonesia this dish would be called sayur lodeh, and the compressed rice lontong.
- Nasi kuning - rice cooked with coconut milk and turmeric. A common breakfast dish in certain regions like the east coast of Sabah, where it is typically served with sambal, eggs, coconut-based serundeng, and spiced fish. Not to be confused with the Peranakan nasi kunyit, which uses glutinous rice.
- Mee rebus - a dish which consists of egg noodles drenched in a spicy aromatic sauce thickened with cooked and mashed tuber vegetables. Versions of mee rebus found in other parts of Malaysia are sometimes called mee jawa, perhaps as a nod to its likely Javanese origin. 
- Pecal - pecal is a vegetable salad with cucumber slices, long beans, beansprout, fried tofu, blanched kangkung and tempeh dressed in a peanut sauce.
- Rempeyek - deep-fried savoury cracker made from flour (usually rice flour) with other ingredients (such as peanuts) bound or coated by crispy flour batter.
- Soto - Meat broth, typically served with plain rice, lontong, or noodles depending on regional variation as well as personal preference.
- Telur pindang - marbled eggs boiled with herbs and spices. Commonly seen in Javanese Malaysian wedding feasts and festive occasions, particularly in Johor.
- Tempeh - a staple source of protein in Javanese cuisine, made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form, similar to a very firm vegetarian burger patty, which can then be cooked and served in a variety of ways.
Malaysian Chinese cuisine Edit
Malaysian Chinese cuisine is derived from the culinary traditions of Chinese Malaysian immigrants and their descendants, who have adapted or modified their culinary traditions under the influence of Malaysian culture as well as immigration patterns of Chinese to Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Chinese Malaysians are descendants of immigrants from southern China, Malaysian Chinese cuisine is predominantly based on an eclectic repertoire of dishes with roots from Cantonese cuisine, Hakka cuisine, Fujian cuisine and Teochew cuisine. [ citation needed ]
As these early immigrants settled in different regions throughout what was then British Malaya and Borneo, they carried with them traditions of foods and recipes that were particularly identified with their origins in China, which gradually became infused with the characteristics of their new home locale in Malaysia while remaining distinctively Chinese. For example, Hainanese chicken rice is usually flavoured with tropical pandan leaves and served with chilli sauce for dipping, and tastes unlike the typical chicken dishes found in Hainan Island itself. Some of these foods and recipes became closely associated with a specific city, town or village, eventually developing iconic status and culminating in a proliferation of nationwide popularity in the present day.
Chinese food is especially prominent in areas with concentrated Chinese communities, at roadside stalls, hawker centres and kopitiam, as well as smart cafes and upmarket restaurants throughout the nation. Many Chinese dishes have pork as a component ingredient, but chicken is available as a substitution for Muslim customers from the wider community, and some Chinese restaurants are even halal-certified. [ citation needed ]
A sample of representative Malaysian Chinese dishes found nationwide include:
- Bak Kut Teh (Chinese : 肉骨茶) (pork ribs soup). The root meaning for the dish, "Bak Kut" (Hokkien dialect) is the term for meaty ribs, at its simplest cooked with garlic, dark soy sauce and a specific combination of herbs and spices which have been boiled for many hours. Popularly regarded as a health tonic, this soup is historically eaten by hard working Chinese coolies working on the wharfs at Port Swettenham (now Port Klang) and clearing estates, accompaniment with strong tea ("Teh") on the side. There are some differences in seasoning amongst other Chinese communities the Teochew prefer a clear broth which is heavier on garlic and pepper, while the Cantonese may include additional varieties of medicinal herbs and spices. Variations include the so-called chik kut teh (made with chicken and a version that is gaining popularity with Muslim diners), seafood bak kut teh, and a "dry" (reduced gravy) version which originated from the town of Klang.
- Bakkwa (Chinese : 肉干) - literally "dried meat", bakkwa is better understood as barbecued meat jerky. While this delicacy is especially popular during the Chinese New Year celebration period, it is available everywhere and eaten year round as a popular snack.
- Bean Sprouts Chicken (Chinese : 芽菜雞) - Ipoh's most well known dish, Bean Sprouts Chicken consists of poached or steamed chicken accompanied with a plate of blanched locally grown bean sprouts in a simple dressing of soy sauce and sesame oil. The crunchy and stout texture of Ipoh-grown bean sprouts is attributed to the mineral-rich properties of local water supplies. The dish is usually served with hor fun noodles in a chicken broth, or plain rice.
- Cantonese fried noodles (Chinese : 廣府炒) refers to a preparation of noodles which are shallow or deep fried to a crisp texture, then served as the base for a thick egg and cornstarch white sauce cooked with sliced lean pork, seafood, and green vegetables like choy sum. A variation called yuen yong (Chinese : 鴛鴦) involves mixing both crisp-fried rice vermicelli as well as hor fun to form a base for the sauce. A related dish called wa tan hor (Chinese : 滑旦河) uses hor fun noodles, but the noodles are not deep fried, merely charred.
- Chai tow kway (Chinese : 菜頭粿) - a common dish in Malaysia made of rice flour. It also known as fried radish cake, although no radish is included within the rice cakes, save perhaps the occasional addition of preserved radish (Chinese: 菜圃) during the cooking process. Seasonings and additives vary from region, and may include bean sprouts and eggs.
- Char kway teow (Chinese: 炒粿條，炒河粉). Stir fried rice noodles with bean sprouts, prawns, eggs (duck or chicken), chives and thin slices of preserved Chinese sausages. Cockles and lardons were once standard offerings, but mostly relegated to optional additions these days due to changing taste preferences and growing health concerns. Penang-style char kway teow is the most highly regarded variant both in Malaysia as well as abroad.
- Chee cheong fun (Chinese: 豬腸粉) is square rice sheets made from a viscous mixture of rice flour and water. This liquid is poured onto a specially made flat pan in which it is steamed to produce the square rice sheets. The steamed rice sheets is rolled or folded for ease in serving. It is usually served with tofu stuffed with fish paste. The dish is eaten with accompaniment of semi sweet fermented bean paste sauce, chilli paste or light vegetable curry gravy. Ipoh and Penang have different variants of the dish as well certain stalls in Ipoh serve the dish with a red sweet sauce, thinly sliced pickled green chillies and fried shallots, whilst in Penang, a type of sweet, black shrimp sauce called hae ko is the main condiment.
- Cheong Cheng style steamed fish (Chinese: 酱蒸鱼) - Cheong cheng literally mean gravy or sauce steamed. The main ingredients for the gravy or sauce are fermented bean paste and chillies.
- Chicken rice (Chinese: 雞飯) - chicken rice is one of the most popular Chinese-inspired dishes in Malaysia. Hainanese chicken rice (Chinese : 海南雞飯) is the best known version: it is prepared with the same traditional method used for cooking Wenchang chicken, which involve steeping the entire chicken at sub-boiling temperatures within a master stock until cooked, to ensure the chicken meat becomes moist and tender. The chicken is then chopped up, and served with a bowl or plate of rice cooked in chicken fat and chicken stock, along with another bowl of clear chicken broth and a set of dips and condiments. Sometimes the chicken is dipped in ice to produce a jelly-like skin finishing upon the completion of the poaching process. In Malacca, the chicken rice is served shaped into balls.
- Curry Mee (Chinese: 咖喱面). A bowl of thin yellow noodles mixed with bihun in a spicy curry soup enriched with coconut milk, and topped with tofu puffs, prawns, cuttlefish, chicken, long beans, cockles and mint leaves, with sambal served on the side. It is often referred to as curry laksa.
- White Curry Mee ( Chinese : 白咖喱 ) similar to curry mee, however the soup base is in white colour instead of yellow or red. The white color comes from the Coconut gravy ( Malay : santan, Chinese : 椰浆 )
- Hokkien Mee (Chinese: 福建炒麵) actually has two variants, with each being ubiquitous to a particular region of Peninsular Malaysia.
- Hokkien mee, colloquially referred to in Penang as Hokkien mee, is also known as hae mee (Chinese : 蝦麵) elsewhere in Malaysia. One of Penang's most famous specialties, it is a noodle soup with yellow and rice noodles immersed in an aromatic stock made from prawns and pork (chicken for halal versions), and garnished with a boiled egg, poached prawns, chopped kangkung and a dollop of spicy sambal.
- Hokkien char mee, a dish of thick yellow noodles braised, fried with thick black soy sauce and added with crispy lardons, is more commonly served in the Klang Valley. It was originally developed in Kuala Lumpur. Thus, within the central region of Peninsular Malaysia, the term Hokkien mee refers to this particular version.
- Lor mee (Chinese: 滷麵). A bowl of thick yellow noodles served in a thickened gravy made from eggs, starch and pork stock.
- Marmite chicken (Chinese : 妈蜜鸡) - a unique dish of marinated fried chicken pieces glazed in a syrupy sauce made from marmite, soy sauce, maltose and honey. This dish may also be prepared with other ingredients like pork ribs and prawns.
- Ngah Po Fan or Sha Po Fan (Chinese : 瓦煲飯 or 沙煲饭) - seasoned rice cooked in a claypot with secondary ingredients, and finished with soy sauce. A typical example is rice cooked with chicken, Chinese sausage, and vegetables. Claypots are also used for braising noodles, meat dishes and reducing soups. One of the most famous and common one is:
- (Chinese : 瓦煲鸡饭) - chicken rice served in a claypot, traditionally cooked with charcoal. Typical additions include salted fish and lap cheong. Bercham, a suburb in Ipoh is famous for claypot chicken rice.
- Oyster omelette or O-chian (Chinese: 蚝煎) - a medley of small oysters is sauteed on a hot plate before being folded into an egg batter, which then has moistened starch mixed in for thickening, and finally fried to a crisp finish. Unlike other versions of oyster omelettes found throughout the Hokkien and Teochew diaspora, a thick savoury gravy is never poured onto Malaysian-style oyster omelettes a chilli sauce is provided on the side for dipping instead.
- Pan mee (Chinese: 板面) - noodle soup with hand-kneaded and torn pieces of noodles or regular strips of machine-pressed noodles, with a toothsome texture not unlike Italian pasta. A variant popular in the Klang Valley is known as "Chilli Pan Mee", and which of cooked noodles served with minced pork, a poached egg, fried anchovies and fried chilli flakes which are added to taste. Chilli Pan Mee is accompanied with a bowl of clear soup with leafy vegetables.
- Popiah (Chinese : 薄饼) - Hokkien/Teochew-style crepe stuffed and rolled up with cooked shredded tofu and vegetables like turnip and carrots. The Peranakan version contains julienned bangkuang (jicama) and bamboo shoots, and the filling is seasoned with tauchu (fermented soybean paste) and meat stock. Another variation consists of popiah doused in a spicy sauce. Popiah can also be deep fried and served in a manner similar to the mainstream Chinese spring roll.
- Tau sar pneah (Chinese: 豆沙饼) - A famous Penang delicacy, this round-shaped Chinese pastry contains primarily green bean paste, and its ingredients include wheat flour, sugar and salt. It is also known asTambun biscuits as it was widely believed that the pastry originated from Bukit Tambun, Penang. Its popularity as a delicacy has made this pastry one of the must-buy souvenirs from Penang. 
- Wonton Mee (Chinese : 雲吞麵) - thin egg noodles with wonton dumplings (Chinese : 雲吞), choy sum and char siu. The dumplings are usually made of pork or prawns, and typically boiled or deep fried. The noodles may be served in a bowl of broth with dumplings as in the traditional Cantonese manner, but in Malaysia it is more commonly dressed with a dark soy sauce dressing, with boiled or deep-fried wonton dumplings as a topping or served on the side in a bowl of broth. Variations of this dish are usually in the meat accompaniments with the noodles. These may include roast pork (烧肉), braised chicken feet, and roast duck (烧鸭).
- Yau Zha Gwai or Eu Char Kway or You Tiao (Chinese: 油炸鬼 or 油条) - a version of the traditional Chinese crueller, which is a breakfast favourite. It can be eaten plain with a beverage like coffee and soy milk, spread with butter or kaya, or dipped into congee. It is shaped like a pair of chopsticks, stuck together.
- Yong tau foo (Chinese : 酿豆腐) - tofu products and vegetables like brinjals, lady's fingers, bitter gourd and chillies stuffed with fish paste or surimi. Originally developed in Ampang, Selangor, Malaysian yong tau foo is a localised adaptation of a Hakka dish called ngiong tew foo (stuffed tofu with ground pork paste) and is usually served in a clear broth, with or without noodles.
- Yusheng (Chinese : 鱼生) - a festive raw fish salad, also pronounced yee sang in the Cantonese manner. While raw fish preparations are thought to have existed in China during antiquity and can be found in the Chaoshan region of Guangdong province in modern times, yusheng was created and developed in Singapore in 1964 when the republic was still a member state of the Federation of Malaysia.  It consists of strips of raw fish tossed at the dining table with shredded vegetables, crispy tidbits and a combination of sauces and condiments. Yusheng literally means "raw fish" but since "fish (鱼)" is commonly conflated with its homophone "abundance (余)", Yúshēng (鱼生) is interpreted as a homophone for Yúshēng (余升) meaning an increase in abundance. Therefore, yusheng is considered a symbol of abundance, prosperity and vigor. As a result, the mixing and tossing of yusheng with chopsticks and the subsequent consumption of the salad has become ritualised as part of the commemoration of Chinese New Year festivities in Malaysia and Singapore.
- Zongzi (Chinese: 粽子) - a traditional Chinese food made of glutinous rice stuffed with savoury or sweet fillings and wrapped in bamboo, reed, or other large flat leaves. They are cooked by steaming or boiling, and are a feature of the Duanwu festival, which is still celebrated by the Chinese communities in Malaysia.
- Lei Cha (Chinese: 擂茶) - This aromatic drink is a Hakka staple. The recipe differs from household to household, but generally green tea leaves are added to a mixture of salt, ground mint leaves, toasted sesame seeds and nuts. The mixture is ground or pounded into a fine powder, then brewed into a drink. Taste salty, minty, and full of nutrition.
- Gong Pian or Kom Piang(Chinese: 福州光饼) - This is a type of clay oven-baked biscuit/bagel associated with the Foochow/Fuzhou settlers brought in by the British. Unlike the more common clan communities brought in, the Foochow/Fuzhou settlers were brought in smaller numbers predominantly settling in Sitiawan, Perak and Sibu, Sarawak. The Gong Pians out of Sitiawan are generally sweet, but the Gong Pians in Sitiawan are salty. It is usually filled with pork, lard or onions and is best eaten while still hot and crispy. Foochow cuisine is unique in its own, different from the other more common Chinese clan communities. It is uncommon and can only be found mainly in Sitiawan and Sibu.
- Chapati - a North Indian style flatbread. It is made from a dough of atta flour (whole grain durum wheat), water and salt by rolling the dough out into discs of approximately twelve centimetres in diameter and browning the discs on both sides on a very hot, dry tava or frying pan without any oil. Chapatis are usually eaten with curried vegetables. and pieces of the chapati are used to wrap around and pick up each bite of the cooked dish.
- Fish head curry - a dish where the head of a fish (usually ikan merah, or literally "red fish"), is braised in a thick and spicy curried gravy with assorted vegetables such as lady's fingers and brinjals.
- Fish molee - originally from the Indian state of Kerala, this preparation of fish in a spiced coconut milk gravy is perhaps the Malaysian Malayalee community's best known dish.
- Idli - made from a mashed mixture of skinned black lentils and rice formed into patties using a mould and steamed, idlis are eaten at breakfast or as a snack.  Idlis are usually served in pairs with vadai, small donut-shaped fritters made from mashed lentils and spices, chutney, and a thick stew of lentils and vegetables called sambar.
- Lassi - a yogurt-based drink which comes in savoury and sweet varieties. A common drink of Tamil origin which is similar to lassi but is thinner in consistency is called moru. It is seasoned with salt with flavoured with spices like asafoetida, curry leaves and mustard seeds. 
- Maggi goreng - a unique Mamak-style variant of mee goreng or stir-fried noodles, using reconstituted Maggi instant noodles instead of yellow egg noodles. The noodles may be wok-tossed with bean sprouts, chilli, greens, eggs, tofu, and meat of choice, although no recipe at any Mamak eatery are ever the same. It is usually accompanied with a calamansi lime. 
- Murtabak - a savoury dish of stuffed roti canai or flatbread eaten with curry gravy. A typical recipe consists of a minced meat mixture seasoned with garlic, onions and spices folded with an omelette and roti canai. Murtabak is popularly eaten with a side of sweet pickled onions during the fasting month of Ramadan.
- Murukku - a savoury snack of spiced crunchy twists made from rice and urad dal flour, traditionally eaten for Deepavali.
- Nasi Beriani or Biryani - a rice dish made from a mixture of spices, basmati rice, yoghurt, meat or vegetables. The ingredients are ideally cooked together in the final phase and is time-consuming to prepare. Pre-mixed biryani spices from different commercial names are easily available in markets these days, which is meant to reduce preparation time.
- Pachadi - a traditional South Indian side accompaniment or relish made with vegetables, fruits or lentils. The Malaysian Telugu community celebrate the Telugu New Year or Ugadi by preparing a special dish called Ugadi Pachadi, which blends six taste notes as a symbolic reminder of the various facets of life. It is made with green chilli (heat), unripe mangoes (tangy), neem flowers (bitter), jaggery (sweet), tamarind juice (sour) and salt. 
- Pasembur - a salad of shredded cucumber, boiled potatoes, fried bean curd, turnip, bean sprouts, prawn fritters, spicy fried crab, and fried octopus. This Penang Mamak speciality is served with a sweet and spicy nut sauce, and variants of this dish are found in other states as Mamak rojak.
- Pongal - a boiled rice dish which comes in sweet and spicy varieties.  It shares the same name as the harvest festival which is celebrated every January the name of the festival itself is derived from this dish.  The sweet variety of pongal, prepared with milk and jaggery, is cooked in the morning. Once the pongal pot has boiled over (symbolism for an abundant harvest), it is then offered as a prasad to the gods as thanksgiving.
- Poori - an unleavened deep-fried bread made with whole-wheat flour, commonly consumed for breakfast or as a light meal. A larger North Indian variant made with leavened all-purpose flour or maida is called bhatura.
- Puttu - a speciality of the Ceylonese Tamil community, puttu is a steamed cylinder of ground rice layered with coconut. It is eaten with bananas, brown sugar, and side dishes like vendhaya kolumbu (tamarind stew flavoured with fenugreek seeds and lentils) or kuttu sambal (relish made from pounded coconut, onions, chilli and spices). 
- Putu Mayam - the Indian equivalent of rice noodles, also known as idiyappam. Homemade versions tend to be eaten as an accompaniment to curried dishes or dal. The street food version is typically served with grated coconut and orange-coloured jaggery. In some areas, gula melaka is the favoured sweetener.
- Roti canai - a thin unleavened bread with a flaky crust, fried on a skillet with oil and served with condiments. It is sometimes referred to as roti kosong. A host of variations on this classic dish may be found at all Mamak eateries, either at the creative whim of the cook or by customers' special request. A few examples include: roti telur (fried with eggs), roti bawang (fried with thinly sliced onions), roti bom (a smaller but denser roti, usually round in shape), roti pisang (banana), and so on.
- Roti tissue - a variant of roti canai made as thin as a piece of 40–50 cm round-shaped tissue in density. It is then carefully folded by the cook into a tall, conical shape and left to stand upright. Roti tissue may be served with curry gravy, dal and chutneys, or finished off with sweet substances such as caramelised sugar and eaten as a dessert.
- Teh tarik - literally meaning "pulled tea", teh tarik is a well-loved Malaysian drink. Tea is sweetened using condensed milk, and is prepared using outstretched hands to pour piping hot tea from a mug into a waiting glass, repetitively. The higher the "tarik" or pull, the thicker the froth. The pulling also has the effect of cooling down the tea. Teh tarik is an art form in itself and watching the tea streaming back and forth into the containers can be quite captivating. Similar drinks and variants include kopi tarik, or "pulled coffee" instead of tea teh halia, tea brewed with ginger, and with or without the tarik treatment and teh madras, which is prepared with three separate layers: milk at the bottom, black tea in the middle and foam at the top. 
- Thosai, dosa or dosai - a soft crepe made from a batter of mashed urad dal and rice, and left to ferment overnight. The batter is spread into a thin, circular disc on a flat, preheated griddle. It may be cooked as it is for (which results in a foldable and soft crepe), or a dash of oil or ghee is then added to the thosai and toasted for crispier results.
- Vadai, vada or vades - is a common term for many different types of savoury fritter-type snacks originated from South India with a set of common ingredients. The most common ingredients are lentils, chillis, onions and curry leaves.
- Amplang is a type of cracker made from Spanish mackerel, tapioca starch and other seasonings, and then deep fried. 
- Bahar or baa is the Kadazandusun variant of palm wine made with sap collected from the cut flower bud of a young coconut tree and a special type of tree bark called rosok, endemic to the Tuaran district. Pieces of the rosok is dipped into the coconut nectar during the fermentation process, which contributes a reddish hue to the final product. 
- Beaufort Mee (Chinese: 保佛炒面) is a speciality of Beaufort town. Handmade noodles are smoked, then wok-tossed with meat (usually slices of char siu and marinated pork) or seafood and plenty of choy sum, and finished off with a thick viscous gravy. 
- Bosou, also called noonsom or tonsom, is the Kadazandusun term for a traditional recipe of tangy fermented meat. Smoked and pulverised buah keluak (nuts from the Kepayang tree (Pangium edule) which grows in Malaysia's mangrove swamplands), or pangi is a key ingredient and acts as a preservative. Combined with rice, salt and fresh meat or fish, the mixture is then placed into a sealed jar or container for fermentation. Contemporary variants for bosou add bananas and pineapples to the mixture. Pinongian is a variant where rice is omitted to produce a final product which is much less tangy in taste however, unlike bosou, "pinongian" must be cooked before serving.
- Hinava is a traditional Kadazandusun dish of raw fish cured in lime juice. Typically, firm fleshed white fish like mackerel (hinava sada tongii) is marinated with lime juice, sliced shallots, chopped chilli, julienned ginger and grated dried seed of the bambangan fruit. Optional additions may include sliced bitter gourd. Hinava may also be made with prawns (hinava gipan).
- Lihing is a rice wine made exclusively from glutinous rice and natural yeast called sasad. Bittersweet in taste profile, lihing is a speciality of the Kadazan Penampang community, where it is still commonly brewed at home. Lihing can be used to make chicken soup (Sup Manuk Lihing), used in marinades, or even as an ingredient for meat pastries and stir-fried dishes. Commercially produced lihing, much pricier then the homebrewed version but consistent in quality, is also available in select souvenir shops. Lihing and similar rice wine variants from other Kadazandusun communities may also be distilled to produce a hard liquor called montoku or talak.
- Linongot is a type of leaf parcel (usually irik or tarap leaves) filled with a combination of cooked rice and root vegetables like sweet potatoes and yam.  Alternate names known by Kadazandusun communities in other districts include linopod and sinamazan. 
- Nasi kombos is a rice dish from the Lotud community.  Glutinous rice is first cooked with young coconut water, and then mixed with the grated tender flesh of a young coconut. The rice is traditionally served in a hollowed out coconut shell. 
- Nonsoom bambangan is a pickle made from half ripe bambangan fruit mixed with grated dried bambangan seed and salt, sealed in a tightly covered jar and left to ferment for weeks. 
- Ngiu chap (牛什) is a Chinese-influenced dish of beef or buffalo broth served with noodles, usually immersed in the soup with slices of poached beef or buffalo meat, meatballs, stewed brisket, tendon, liver and various offal parts. An iconic Sabahan dish, ngiu chap has many different variations, from the lighter Hainanese style to heartier Hakka-influenced flavours, and even village-style ngiu chap adapted for indigenous tastes. 
- Piaren Ah Manuk is a chicken curry made from a sauteed rempah base and grated coconut, then braised in coconut milk. This dish is very popular in the Iranun community.  Variants include fish (Piaren Ah Sada) and unripe jackfruit (Piaren Ah Badak).
- Nuba laya/Nuba tinga is an ordinary rice wrapped with banana leaf or nyrik leaf. This dishes is to ease the farmer and the traveller for them to carry for a long journey. Usually this dishes is very famous among the Lun Bawang/Lundayeh people and this dishes a bit similarity to the linongot. However, this Nuba Tinga/Nuba laya is different because the rice is very soft and can bitten easily by senior citizen.
- Pinasakan or Pinarasakan is a home-style Kadazandusun dish of fish simmered with takob-akob (dried skin of a mangosteen-like fruit which functions as a souring agent) or slices of unripe bambangan, as well as fresh turmeric leaves and rhizome. 
- Pinjaram (or known as: Penyaram) is a Bajau and Bruneian Malay heritage. It is famous and popular almost everywhere in Sabah and can be found in night markets and Tamu (Sabah weekly market).
- Sagol or sinagol is a Bajau speciality of fish which is first blanched and minced, then sauteed with turmeric, garlic, ginger, onions and crushed lemongrass. Traditionally the oil used is rendered fish liver oil, usually from the same fish used to prepare this dish. This dish may be prepared with shark, stingray and even puffer fish. 
- Sang nyuk mian (Chinese : 生肉面) is a dish of noodles served with pork broth, originating from Tawau. Very popular with the non-Muslim communities of Sabah, it is named after the poached-to-order slices of tender marinated pork served in pork broth which is flavoured with fried lard bits. The noodles (usually thick yellow noodles) are either dressed in dark soy and lard, or dunked into the soup along with the aforementioned pork slices, vegetables, meatballs and offal. 
- Sinalau refers to Kadazandusun style smoked meat, which is usually wild boar or bakas. Barbecued on a char grill and eaten with rice and dipping sauces, sinalau bakas can be found and purchased in rural areas and towns. Halal versions substitute wild boar for other game meats like deer. 
- Sinamu Baka is a Lun Bawang/Lundayeh traditional food. This is a tangy fermented food same like a Bosou but the differences is sinamu baka only suitable for wild bear.
- Tinonggilan is a slightly sparkling alcoholic drink made from maize. Tinonggilan is a Rungus speciality and is usually served during festive occasions, or as refreshments for guests during the performance of a ritual dance called Mongigol Sumundai. 
- Tompek is a Bajau food made from grated tapioca, eaten as an alternative starchy staple to rice. The grated tapioca is squeezed to dry out mixture and crumbled, then fried or toasted until golden brown.  Grated tapioca may also be packed into cylindrical shapes and steamed until it forms into a chewy tubular cake called putu, another traditional Bajau staple. 
- Tuaran mee (Chinese: 斗亚兰面) is a speciality of Tuaran town. This dish of wok fried fresh handmade noodles is well known in the nearby city of Kota Kinabalu as well as in neighbouring Tamparuli town, where the localised adaptation is called Tamparuli mee (Chinese: 担波罗利炒生面). The noodles must first be toasted with oil in the wok to prevent it from clumping together, then blanched to reduce the stiff crunchy texture from toasting. The final step involves stir frying the noodles to a dry finish with eggs, vegetables, and meat or seafood. 
- Tuhau (Etlingera coccinea) is a type of wild ginger, specifically the stems of the same plant popularly served as a relish by the Kadazandusun community. The stems are typically chopped up and served fresh with lime juice, or mixed with local chives and chilli peppers then cured with salt and vinegar. A more recent recipe called serunding tuhau involves slicing tuhau stems into thin floss-like shreds, which is then sauteed until it becomes golden and crisp. It has a distinctive scent which is said to have a polarising effect even among indigenous Sabahans. 
Malaysian Indian cuisine Edit
Malaysian Indian cuisine, or the cooking of the ethnic Indian communities in Malaysia consists of adaptations of authentic dishes from India, as well as original creations inspired by the diverse food culture of Malaysia. As the vast majority of Malaysia's Indian community are mostly ethnic Tamils who are descendants of the modern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka's Northern Province, much of Malaysian Indian cuisine is predominantly South Indian inspired in character and taste. A typical Malaysian Indian dish is likely to be redolent with curry leaves, whole and powdered spice, and contains fresh coconut in various forms. Ghee is still widely used for cooking, although vegetable oils and refined palm oils are now commonplace in home kitchens. Before a meal it is customary to wash hands as cutlery is often not used while eating, with the exception of a serving spoon for each respective dish.
Food served in the traditional South Indian manner is termed banana leaf rice. Plain white or parboiled rice would be served with an assortment of vegetable preparations, lentil gravy, pickles, condiments, and papadum crackers on a banana leaf, which acts as a disposable plate. Banana leaf meals are eaten to celebrate special occasions such as festivals, birthdays, marriages, or to commemorate funeral wakes. It is customary to consume banana leaf meals by hand and to show appreciation for the food by folding the banana leaf inwards, though less ritual and etiquette is observed when the meal isn't part of a formal occasion, such as the Malayalee community's elaborate Sadya feasts. Boiled eggs, meat or seafood dishes are available at banana leaf restaurants which are not exclusively vegetarian or vegan.
Some notable Malaysian Indian dishes include:
Sabahan food Edit
The food of Sabah reflects the ethnic diversity of its population and is very eclectic. Traditional Kadazandusun cuisine involves mostly boiling or grilling and employs little use of oil. From simple appetizers of seasoned unripe mango to a variety of pickled foods collectively known as noonsom, tangy and pungent flavours derived from souring agents or fermentation techniques is a key characteristic of traditional Kadazandusun cooking. [ citation needed ] Rice wine accompanies all Kadazandusun celebrations and rites, and at a Murut event there will be rows upon rows of jars with fermented tapioca tapai.  Presently few eateries in Sabah serve traditional indigenous dishes, although it will always be found during festive occasions like weddings and funerals, as well as the Kaamatan and Kalimaran cultural festivals. Chinese-influenced dishes like northern Chinese potstickers and Hakka stuffed tofu, along with many original creations developed in Sabah's interior settlements by immigrants from both northern and southern China throughout the 20th century, feature prominently on the menus of many kopitiam establishments and upscale restaurants. [ citation needed ]
Sabah is notable for its excellent seafood, temperate produce and tea (Sabah tea has GI status) grown in the highlands of Mt. Kinabalu, and a small coffee plantation industry with Tenom coffee considered the best produce in the region. Local ingredients like freshwater fish, wild boar (bakas in native dialects), bamboo shoots, wild ferns, and various jungle produce still figure prominently in the daily diet of the local population. As a significant portion of rural communities still subsist on agriculture as their primary source of income, small scale festivals are even held each year at certain towns to celebrate produce vital to the livelihoods of the local people: the Pesta Jagung of Kota Marudu, the Pesta Rumbia (sago) of Kuala Penyu, and Pesta Kelapa from the town of Kudat.  Sabah vegetable, also known as cekuk manis or sayur manis (Chinese : 树仔菜), can be found on the menus of many eateries and restaurants throughout the state of Sabah. It is one of the local terms used for a variety of Sauropus albicans developed in Lahad Datu, which yields crunchy edible shoots in addition to its leaves. [ citation needed ] The flavour is reminiscent of spinach but more complex, "as though it had been fortified with broccoli and infused with asparagus",  and is typically stir-fried with eggs or seasonings like sambal belacan.
Whether grilled, cured, deep-fried, steamed, stir-fried, braised, served raw, or made into soups, Sabah's seafood is famed for its freshness, quality, and good value for money. A vast variety of fish, cephalopods, marine crustaceans, shellfish, sea cucumbers and jellyfish have become mainstays on lunch and dinner menus at kopitiam, restaurants, and humble food shacks all over Kota Kinabalu and other coastal towns like Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu and Semporna. Seafood paired with noodles also figure prominently for breakfast, for each day locals flock to speciality eateries where they may be served an assortment of fish-based products to start the day. Examples include: poached patties handmade with fresh fish paste deep-fried fish cakes wrapped in tofu skin sheets and noodle soups with toppings like sliced fish fillet, fish balls, prawn balls, and fish innards. A few eateries even serve "noodles" rolled out with fresh fish paste. [ citation needed ]
Edible seaweed is a traditional food for certain seaside communities throughout Sabah and also possess GI status.  Latok is similar in appearance to clusters of green-hued fish eggs or grapes, and is typically prepared as a salad by the Bajau people. Coral seaweed is another popular seaplant product in recent times it is marketed as a gourmet health food to both locals and tourists, and is given the moniker of "sea bird's nest" (Chinese : 海底燕窝) as coral seaweed acquires a similar gelatinous texture when dissolved in water. [ citation needed ]
Among the foods and beverages particular to Sabah are:
Sarawakian food Edit
Sarawakian is quite distinct from the regional cuisines of the Peninsular. It is considered less spicy, lightly prepared and with more emphasis on subtle flavours. The most important spice in Sarawakian cuisine is pepper. Pepper is commercially produced on an industrial scale as a cash crop, and the preferred choice by local cooks when heat is wanted in a dish. Granted GI status by MyIPO, Sarawak black pepper is highly regarded by international culinary figures such as Alain Ducasse. 
While the Iban constitute the largest Dayak subgroup as well as the most populous ethnic group in Sarawak, much of the ethnic Iban population is still concentrated away from Sarawak's main urban areas, congregating instead within longhouse communities scattered all over the interior regions of the state. The traditional cookery of the Iban is called pansoh or pansuh, which is the preparation and cooking of food in bamboo tubes. Ingredients like poultry, fish, pork, vegetables or rice are mixed with fragrant herbs like lemongrass, tapioca leaves and bungkang leaves (a species of myrtle from the Eugenia genus), then sealed within the bamboo tubes and placed directly over an open fire. Cooking food this way will infuse it with aroma and flavour from the bamboo tubes while keeping it moist. [ citation needed ]
During Dayak festivals or Gawai, the Iban would slaughter locally reared pigs. The pig would be cleaned thoroughly after the slaughter, have its head and stomach removed, and the rest of the pig would be cut into smaller pieces in preparation for barbecuing. The head and stomach of a pig are usually put aside and prepared separately as they are considered the choicest parts of the animal hence pig's heads are a common edible gift brought by visitors to an Iban longhouse, and dishes such as pork stomach cooked with pineapples are a must for Gawai. [ citation needed ]
Sarawak is notable for its rice currently three varieties grown in Sarawak has been granted GI status by MyIPO.   Among the foods and beverages particular to Sarawak are:
Roasted Sweet Potato and Parsnip Soup
I am not a vegan by any stretch of even the most delusional lunatic’s imagination. It’s difficult to admit it to you guys, but I covet all things animal. However, it would be unfair to describe me as an ‘average meat eater’ – meat finds its sordid way onto my menu once, maybe twice, per week. After all, meat can be both healthy and expensive my diet naturally contains a good proportion of vegan and vegetarian food. It seems to me amongst the various communities of meat eaters there is a lot of negativity directed towards veganism. Though it is often true that I don’t entirely agree or understand why people ‘turn’ vegan, you won’t encounter any such negativity here. I’m perfectly cognisant of the fact vegan food can taste just as good as that which contains meat or dairy, sometimes more so. Indeed, I feel privileged to be, for the first time, part of the Virtual Vegan Potluck.
Traditionally, parsnip is a vegetable the male members of my family struggle to get along with – my dad certainly won’t eat them. Put a roast parsnip in front of me and you’ll be more likely to encounter a torrent of abuse than a gastronomically fuelled embrace. However, when incorporated into soup, my opinion of the humble parsnip changes entirely – they are no longer an odd tasting root-vegetable they become something far sweeter with a considerable depth of flavour. It is for this reason that I paired them with sweet potatoes, a combination that seemed to work exceedingly well. The addition of freshly chopped chives then had the privilege of taking this soup to the next level, providing the freshness root-vegetable soups often require.
So, there you have it – my first VVP post and hopefully not my last! I hope everything was to everyone’s satisfaction, perhaps this experience will provide even great impetus to create more vegan delights. Thank you to Somer for successfully convincing me that this was a good idea. Do enjoy the next link in the chain that makes up the Virtual Vegan Potluck!
P.S. I’m so sorry for the fact I’ve managed to post two sweet potato recipes in a row – silly Frugal!
Roasted Sweet Potato and Parsnip Soup
• 3 sweet potatoes, peeled and diced
• 2 parsnips, peeled and diced
• 1 litre vegetable stock or bouillon
• A handful of fresh chives, finely chopped
1. Prepare your ingredients and pop them on a baking tray with a good drizzle of olive oil, a generous pinch of salt and a hefty twist of black pepper. Pop in the oven and bake until brown.
2. Set the roasted vegetables aside and heat a little oil in a saucepan. Squeeze the innards of the roasted garlic cloves into the oil and fry gently for 2 minutes. Tip in the rest of the veg and add 800ml of the stock. Depending on your personal taste you may like to add the remaining 200ml, or even more, but that’s up to you.
3. Blend the soup using either a food processor or hand blender. Season to taste and serve immediately with fresh chives and a hunk of bread.
Cost: True vegan food does tend to be exceedingly cheap and it’s simple to see why – it’s hard for it to contain anything particularly expensive. Of course, a knob of butter would have gone down well, but I thought I’d remain entirely within the spirit of things. This soup should set one back no more than £1.80 – bargain!
So, who came before and who came after? Well, click on these images below to find out!
Steak Tips. It's a New England thing
Large, medium , small and a mini. Egg'n, golfing, beer drinking, camping and following football and baseball.
Atlanta NOTP suburbia.
just put some in some sweet bourbon sriracha marinade for tonight
1/4 cup makers
1/4 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup soy
2 tbsp sriracha
tbls grainy dijon
tsp corn starch
1 big dried ancho broken up with seeds.
4 long strips of flap meat
some for tonight, some for tomorrow, new recipe to me and i couldnt follow the one i found
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus: Canis Species: C. lupus Subspecies: C. l. familiaris 
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Felis Species: F. catus
Both cats and dogs are in the Order Carnivora.
Both are true carnivores. Dogs may be able to digest non-meat items better than cats, but they are genetically carivores through & through. In the wild, they hunt and kill meat to survive, they do not go around picking fruits and berries.
Large BGE in a Sole' Gourmet Table
Using the Black Cast Iron grill, Plate Setter,
and a BBQ Guru temp controller.
Medium BGE in custom modified off-road nest.
Black Cast Iron grill, Plate Setter, and a Party-Q temp controller.
Location: somewhere West of the Mason-Dixon Line
I love this science sh*t. KEEP GOING.
GIVE ME MY VITAMIN A, BITCHES. THAT COW ATE SUM.
Those bad boys would bring tears to Tom Brady's eyes. Then again that isn't too hard to do. ) Sorry I couldn't help myself. :P
IMHO the best steak tips in the world are at the Newbridge Cafe in Chelsea, MA. just outside of Boston.
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Thanksgiving is coming up in the United States and so in honor of the day, I'm posting one of my all-time favorite holiday dishes – bite-size pieces of roasted yam glazed with buttery, caramelized maple syrup and accented with dried cranberries and fresh orange juice. Even though I love every part of the traditional Thanksgiving feast, this is the dish that I purposely double every time so that there are plenty of leftovers for days to come. It's been on my holiday menu for nearly 15 years and I still look forward to it each fall.
The yams are sweet, but not sickeningly so like they are when they're smothered with marshmallows or even brown sugar. And the marriage of cranberry and orange will always hold a place in my heart (and on my taste buds): anytime they show up together in a recipe – be it in bread, cake, yams, or a condiment – I swoon just a little bit each time they're together.
And when eaten in moderation, this is a nutrient-dense dish to bring to the holiday table. As with most naturally brightly-colored foods, both sweet potatoes and cranberries are high in cancer-reducing phytonutrients and antioxidants. Beta carotene, vitamin A, and potassium also show up in abundance in sweet potatoes, while cranberries possess the unique ability to keep troublesome bacteria from binding to the stomach and digestive tract, thus reducing urinary tract infections and stomach ulcers. The orange-fleshed variety of sweet potatoes to which we have ready access are basically cancer-fighting, anti-inflammatory, blood sugar regulating, anti-oxidant, downright delicious tubers! The caratenoids (such as beta carotene) and vitamins are most bio-available when eaten with a few grams of fat, supplied here by butter, but to be honest, there's far more butter here than the bit that is needed to carry the vitamins into our systems – that's for all that delicious buttery flavor!
Garden Fresh Gazpacho
Gazpacho is the perfect soup of summer. Refreshingly cool on a hot summer day, this classic Spanish soup combines the best of summers most nutrient rich vegetables. This soup is always best when you can use locally grown and picked at their peak vegetables. Not only will they be bursting with nutrients, but also bursting with flavor. You just can’t do justice to this soup with store bought veggies picked way before they are naturally ripe! And did you know, organic tomatoes contain three time the cancer fighting lycopene that conventional tomatoes contain? And lycopene is one of those foods that is absorbed better when eaten with a fat, so add some yummy avocado to your gazpacho to top it off!
4-6 ripe tomatoes, quartered
1 red onion, quartered
1 cucumber, peeled, seeded and chopped in large pieces
2-3 stalks celery, chopped in large pieces
2 carrots, chopped roughly
1 sweet red bell pepper, quartered
2-4 cloves of garlic minced
2 Tbsp fresh parsley
1 tsp cumin
Pinch of red pepper flakes
1/4 cup olive oil
Juice of 1 lemon
1 tsp raw sugar or honey
sea salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
1 tsp worcestershire sauce
2-4 cups V-8, tomato juice or the healthy organic equivelent
1 cup medium shrimp, cooked (optional)
Combine all ingredients, with only about half the tomato juice in blender, and blend at low speed, leaving soup chunky. Add all ingredients, and mix. Refrigerate or serve with cilantro and sliced avocado. Makes great leftovers too!
Super Sweet Blogger Award
KitchenCauldron was recently nominated for “The Super Sweet Blogging Award” – which obviously doesn’t mean the nominee ONLY blogs about sweet things, offering sugar-filled recipes in every post. What it entails, it seems to me, is that some of the blogger’s recipes include yummy desserts – but there’s also a “sweetness” in the fact that one gets nominated by another blogger who has read and been inspired by your postings – recipes and ramblings alike. This sister or brother blogger thinks your link is worthy of sharing with others. In turn, accepting the nomination, I get to pay it forward – I direct my readers to the wonderful blog of the person who nominated me, and I list some blog sites that have inspired me.
I would like to thank Baby Boomer Bakes blog for giving KitchenCauldron this wonderful Super Sweet Blogging Award. I discovered Nikki Norman’s fabulous blog a short time ago and love it! Nikki’s a Florida food and travel blogger, plus an award-winning recipe developer, food stylist, and food photographer.
Rules for this award include:
1. Thank the Super Sweet blogger who made the nomination.
2. Answer the five questions provided with award.
3. Nominate a baker’s dozen of other bloggers.
Here are the answers to the sweet questions posed to me:
1. Cookie or cake? CUPcakes! Love idea of individual little cakes, just enough sweetness in one serving. Almond cupcakes are my latest fav (see recipe on KitchenCauldron).
2. Chocolate or Vanilla? Vanilla, although a super-good chocolate is hard to resist.
3. What is your favorite sweet treat? Hard to say, but I do love Jelly Belly Jelly Beans! And then there’s pumpkin pudding.
4. When do you crave sweet things the most? Right after dinner.
5. If you had a sweet nickname, what would it be? Already called Honey by hubby but, if guided by my favorite spice, it would be Cinnamon.
It is always a challenge to single out specific blogs, as there are so many great ones available. However, below are some of the sweet people I’ve nominated:
CSA Newsletter Week 14/52
MOUNTAIN BOUNTY FARM NEWS
Week 14/52 of 2021
This past week our crew welcomed four very shiny new interns into our midst, marking the start of our 7-month farm internship program and ‘main’ growing season of farming. These intrepid folks come from all over the country and possess a variety of backgrounds and experiences. They give us a huge boost of fresh energy and enthusiasm right when we need it, and we’re incredibly lucky to have them! Over the following months, we’ll teach them everything we can about farming and the art of growing good vegetables, and in the process, they’ll shape the year into something wholly new. This week, with their help, we were able to plant acres of onions, potatoes, tomatoes, and spring brassicas, build two of our massive high tunnels, graft tomatoes, and get a monumental amount of clearing and fieldwork done. Cheers to many hands and new beginnings!
THIS WEEK'S CSA CONTENTS
Asparagus (Durst Organic Growers)
Spring onions (Full Belly Farm)
Red butter lettuce (Full Belly Farm)
Asparagus (Durst Organic Growers)
The Winter Fruit Share ended last week. There are NO fruit deliveries this week.
You must renew for the Summer Fruit Share, regardless of subscription type. There is no rollover between fruit seasons.
SEASONAL FLOWER SHARES: (provided by Little Boy Flowers)
Early Spring Flower shares continue this week. These shares are 8 weeks and feature spring blooms from poppies and anemones to tulips and ranunculus.
Peony shares are also available for four weeks starting mid-May. In these shares, you will receive generous bunches of peonies which will fill your house with their amazing fragrance and long-lasting blooms. Join today!
Coffee beans (non-roasted), tomatoes, wheat, rye, oats, lemon grass, taro, potatoes, green onions, garlic, pineapple, sunflowers, water chestnuts, popcorn, and raw spices (fennel, anise, sesame seed, celery seeds, etc.). In the case of peppers, squash, pumpkins, cucumbers and eggplants, the seeds need to mature along with the fruit, so look for ripe or even overripe produce to use as seed stock.
About The Author: Ellen Brown is an environmental writer and photographer and the owner of Sustainable Media, an environmental media company that specializes in helping businesses and organizations promote eco-friendly products and services.
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Many things, especially fruits, are irradiated so they will NOT grow. You just have to try it. I do know that garlic cloves grow just fine, as I have done it. Buy a fresh garlic bulb at the store. Break apart the garlic into cloves, and plant each clove about 6-8 inches apart, about 6 inches deep, just like a tulip. Leave them in the ground, even during the winter. It will take 2-3 years for the new cloves to grow into larger pieces. But each year the stalks will sprout, grow, and eventually flower. Let the stalks die back, and pull up one when needed. Hang unusued cloves by their dried leaves in a cool dry place. Or put them in the bottom drawer of your fridge, uncovered. Moisture will cause them to rot.
To pull up a garlic clove, try to do it when the stalk is still green. Otherwise, the time of year doesn't matter, you just need something to locate the clove. Take a spade and push down so you will be under the clove, then tilt the handle back, pushing up the clove. Sift through the dirt to find the clove, or pull on the green leaves to pull it out of the loosened dirt. If you don't loosen the dirt, the leaves will break before you pull up the cloves.
I have done this in Michigan and our winters did not hurt the garlic at all. They all came back each year.
Here in Florida (USDA Zone 9b), I grow bunch onions. I buy those small bunches of onions from the local supermarket and my wife uses them in salads.
I make sure she leaves about 2" or so of green leaves, and then I plant them in good, rich soil. They grow to maturity in about a year, during which I cut some of the leaves, which grow to 3' high, and we use them for cooking, salads, etc.
At the end of the year, I dig up the onions - this has to be done before they begin to flower, as the bulb texture and flavor goes "off" when flowering begins. I usually have onions right around softball size, or sometimes larger.
One trick about growing onions: if you want them sweet, water them well. If you want them to be hot, restrict watering a bit.
About growing garlic - When I lived in an apartment in California I grew garlic in a terra cotta pot, in my kitchen. The spot where it grew got a lot of sunshine through a window. Now there's the thing, I did not grow it for the cloves, I grew it for the green leaves, aka garlic chives that are very tasty in salads.
Thanks for a great article, Ellen. I grow large, healthy, red, yellow orange and green bell peppers. I save the seed from peppers bought at the grocery store.
Hey, Ellen, great post! I knew that you can grow a pineapple and avocado, but didn`t know about the other things at this list! Thanks for sharing with us, have to try growing something new!
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